Health Practitioners

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SCIENTIFIC AND MEDICAL RESEARCH RELATED TO BOVINE
COLOSTRUM ITS RELATIONSHIP AND USE IN THE TREATMENT
OF DISEASE IN HUMANS SELECTED PUBLISHED ABSTRACTS

By: Anthony Kleinsmith, Ph.D. TRUE BOVINE COLOSTRUM for t he Practitioner

INTRODUCTION

Colostrum is the first milk-like fluid yielded from the mammary glands of
mammals after parturition and is intended for ingestion by the newborn during the
first hours of life. In most mammals, such as humans, many of the biologically
active substances essential to development and survival, such as growth
promoting substances and immunoglobulins, cross the placental barrier and are
transferred to the fetus in utero. In sharp contrast, in ungulates, particularly
bovines, essentially none of these biologically active substances cross the
placental barrier and, thus, must be acquired by the offspring through suckling
during the early hours of its life.
There is a considerable body of scientific evidence showing that if a calf fails to
receive an adequate quantity of high quality complete colostrum, it will be more
vulnerable to pathogens in its environment and will not develop a proper body
mass.1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8.The impact of inadequate colostrum intake during the first hours of
life on the survival and health of calves was studied in more than 2,200 animals
over a five year period by the United Kingdom National Agricultural Center Calf
Unit. As shown in the table below, they found that calves that received only a
small amount of colostrum were six times more likely to die than those that
received the required two quarts. If the animals that received a small amount of
colostrum survived, they were ill almost three times as often as the calves that
got enough colostrum. Getting enough high quality colostrum is essential to the
health and well being of the calf and failure to do so will follow the animal for the
rest of its life.

EF F EC T OF C OL OST R U M IN T AKE ON C AL F H EAL T H
C o l o s tr u m % %
In ta k e D i e d Il l
L i ttl e 7 .9 4 2 .2
So m e 3 .0 2 4 .2
En o u g h 1 .3 1 5 .4

In addition to containing a high concentration of maternally-derived
immunoglobulins, first milking bovine colostrum is a complex resource of
biologically active substances necessary to support the development and repair
of cells and tissues; to assure the effective and efficient metabolism of nutrients;
and to initiate and support the immune system. This is not completely surprising
when we consider that it is intended for consumption by a newborn calf that has
received none of the substances in utero that will be required for its proper
development outside of the uterus and that its growth will occur at a very rapid
rate, creating a huge demand for energy. The components of bovine colostrum are also compatible with almost any species and can readily convey its full
benefits to other mammals, including humans, by routine dietary
supplementation.

COLOSTROGENESIS – THE FORMATION OF BOVINE COLOSTRUM

The formation of colostrum in the pregnant cow is initiated about 3-4 weeks
before parturition when a limited amount of fluid containing small amounts of
growth factors and other transforming substances is released into the developing
mammary tissue.9,10The process is regulated by a series of other hormones, one
of the most important being progesterone, which attaches to special receptors on
the cells lining the mammary gland and prevents them from secreting any fluid
into the gland during most of pregnancy.11,12 About two weeks before birth, these
substances influence the appearance of specific receptors on the surface of the
cells lining the mammary gland that will facilitate the transfer of materials from
the mother's blood into the gland, including the immunoglobulins (antibodies)
necessary to convey passive immunity to the calf after birth and various
hormones and growth promoters required to induce and support development of
the newborn calf.13About 2 days before birth, the hormonal balance begins to shift, initiating the
production of copious secretions and switching on the ability of cells in the
mammary tissue to synthesize various substances, including lactose.14.15 At birth,
when the placenta is eliminated, progesterone levels fall dramatically in the
mother and its inhibitory control of the secretions is removed.
12,16,17Simultaneously, a protein-based substance develops in the cells lining the
mammary gland that essentially blocks any further transfer of substances from
the mother's blood into the gland.13The composition of the fluid in the mammary
gland at birth is that of true colostrum and reflects the functional changes that
have occurred in the gland up to that time; it a) has a high protein concentration,
most of which is IgG; b) contains the highest concentration of growth promoters,
other hormones and additional metabolically active substances; c) is low in
lactose content; and d) is rich in milk fat.18After birth, one of the most influential factors on the composition of subsequent
secretions is physical removal of the fluid from the mammary gland. The removal
of even small quantities of fluid triggers the production of copious amounts of
secretion from the cells in the mammary gland.13Since the transfer of
biologically-active substances from the mother's blood is blocked, replacement
fluid will contain primarily substances synthesized by cells in the mammary gland
and, thus, will be of a different composition than the fluid originally contained in
the mammary gland at birth. The fluid expressed at this time is known as
“transitional milk”. This is further complicated by the fact that the basic
composition of the colostrum changes after birth due to maternal reabsorption
and does so rapidly beginning at six hours, as can be seen from the table
below.18Thus, the highest quality bovine colostrum, containing the maximum concentration of
biologically active substances, is collected in a single milking
during the first six hours after parturition.

COMPOSITION OF DRIED BOVINE COLOSTRUM

The rapidly changing composition of colostrum in the mammary gland of the
mother fits together very well with events that happen in the body of the newborn
calf. During the first six hours of life, the calf's stomach lining does not make any
acid and there are very few, if any, enzymes present that can break down
ingested proteins. Complete first milking colostrum also contains substances
that inhibit the action of some enzymes. Therefore, these conditions work in
favor of having the biologically active substances in complete colostrum pass
through the calf's stomachs into the upper portion of the small intestine without
being broken down. During the first 6-8 hours of life, an area in the upper
duodenum has specialized sites where the biologically active substances can be
absorbed and transported directly into the calf's bloodstream. After this period,
the stomach begins to acidify, enzymes appear and the specialized absorption
area in the small intestine changes dramatically so that most of the biologically
active substances in colostrum are no longer absorbed. This process is aided by
the fact that calves are born with a well-developed system of lymphoid tissue
under their tongue and at the back of their throat that persists throughout their
entire life. Many biologically active substances are absorbed through these
tissues when the calf suckles its mother or a nursing bottle.19,20,21Hrs. After Total
Total Calving Protein Fat Lactose Solids

0 17.57 5.10 2.19 26.99
6 10.00 6.85 2.71 20.46
12 6.05 3.80 3.71 14.53
24 4.52 3.40 3.98 12.77
36 3.98 3.55 3.97 12.22
48 3.74 2.80 3.97 11.46

Hours After Birth Protein Casein Albumin Fat Lactose

0 65.10 18.82 42.02 18.90 8.11
8 48.90 17.16 30.79 33.48 13.25
12 41.64 20.65 20.37 26.15 25.53
24 35.40 21.61 11.59 26.62 31.17
30 29.42 18.78 8.80 35.95 31.33
36 32.57 22.67 8.43 29.05 32.49
48 32.64 22.95 8.64 24.43 34.64
72 32.55 22.77 8.18 26.14 36.85
96 31.73 22.62 6.92 29.60 39.83

THE COMPOSITION OF BOVINE COLOSTRUM

From the chart above, it is very obvious how fast the relationship of the
biologically active components in bovine colostrum changes after birth of the calf.
Recognizing this changing relationship is extremely important in defining what
bovine colostrum really is and in assuring that it contains the maximum amount
of biologically active substances.22

Protein.

Most of the biologically active substances
in complete bovine colostrum that can convey significant health benefits are proteins.
Since almost all of the beneficial proteins are conveyed from the mother's bloodstream
into the colostrum before birth and the mother then begins to reabsorb them about 6-8
hours after birth, it is important to use colostrum that has been collected during a time
period that will minimize the effect of the reabsorption process. Of real significance is the
fact that by 24 hours after birth most of the proteins in the udder fluid can be
accounted for by two individual proteins that are primarily only of nutritional
value, casein and albumin.18

Colostral Fat.

The milk fat in complete first milking colostrum is one the most under-rated and
misunderstood components by many companies that promote bovine colostrum
for human consumption. There are all kinds of stories, none of which are ever
substantiated with any scientific evidence that the fat in colostrum doesn't serve
any purpose and/or that having it there leads to faster deterioration of the
product. Nothing could be further from the truth. In fact, one of the companies
that removes the fat from what they call "colostrum" adds a component of the fat
back to their dried products. They claim that this makes their "colostrum" more
digestible, which was one of the functions of the fat in complete colostrum in the
first place. Casein is a nutritionally valuable complete protein that is broken down
in the stomach to small peptides and amino acids so that they can be absorbed
and used to build new muscle protein by forming a cottage cheese-like curd in
the stomach. This occurs enzymatically in the newborn and the adult and the
basis for the curd that forms is the fat in the colostrum. So without it, in addition
to losing some significant biologically active substances that are associated with
the fat, one loses most of the nutritional value of the casein. That is part of the
reason why the fat content of colostrum increases with time after birth as the
amount of casein increases in the secreted fluid. Mother nature doesn't waste
much and has organized the components of colostrum and their changing pattern
in an efficient way to maximize the benefits to the offspring that is going to
receive it. High quality first milking bovine colostrum will contain 20-30% milk fat.
18The milk fat in colostrum is also a very important means to deliver some of its
beneficial biologically active substances.22,23Dissolved in or associated with the fat
in colostrum are vitamins A, D, E and K; steroid hormones; corticosteroids;
some growth factors; and insulin.

Lactose (milk sugar).

Approximately 10-15% of all of the solid material in high quality complete first
milking colostrum will be lactose.18.Lactose is extremely important to the calf as
an immediate metabolic energy source when it is broken down to glucose and
galactose by an enzyme (lactase) in the saliva and the stomach. Therefore, it
makes good sense that the amount of lactose in transitional milk and mature milk
increases as the calf develops rapidly during the early days of its life.
Since most people have the same enzyme (lactase) in their saliva and their
digestive system, the lactose in the colostrum that they use as a dietary
supplement can provide the same ready source of metabolic energy. However,
there are “lactose intolerant” individuals who have problems digesting lactose
because their body produces too little or none of the lactase enzyme. The
amount of lactose in first milking colostrum collected within 6 hours after birth is
about one-half of what it is at 12 hours after birth and one-third of what it
becomes by 24 hours. Therefore, high quality complete first milking colostrum
collected within 6 hours after birth can be used as a dietary supplement by more
people without potentially having them suffer the discomforts associated with
lactose intolerance.

Other compositional considerations.

The following comparative facts about colostrum and milk further stress the value
of a complete first milking colostrum in maximizing the health related benefits.

22 Colostrum contains 10 times more vitamin A than milk.
Colostrum contains 3 times more vitamin D than milk.
Colostrum contains at least 10 times more iron than milk.
Colostrum contains more calcium, phosphorous and magnesium than milk.

The biologically active components.

The biologically active components in complete first milking colostrum can be
divided into categories based upon the health aspect where they exert their
greatest influence. In some cases the functions of these components can be
clearly separated into such categories, while, in many cases, the dividing line is
clouded. The major categories are the Immune Factors, the Growth Factors
and the Metabolic Factors. It is very important to recognize that most of the
very broad claims made by many suppliers of colostrum for human consumption
about what these substances do are based upon very specialized studies in
experimental animals and represent the company's interpretation of the results
and not necessarily that of the original scientific investigator.

The Immune Factors.

To comprehend what the Immune Factors are in high quality first milking
colostrum and what they do, it is important to recognize that some of these
components have one or more effects on the overall regulation and functioning of
the immune system (immuno-regulating substances), while others are very
restricted in what they can do and their benefits are usually very localized in the
body, ordinarily exerting their effects primarily in the gut (gut protective
substances).

Immuno-regulating substances.

Thymosin (alpha & beta chains). A hormone composed of two protein-based
chains that are separately present in bovine colostrum. The chains act on the
thymus gland independently or in concert with each other to stimulate activation,
development and maintenance of the immune system.24,25,26

Proline-rich peptide (PRP), a/k/a thymulin. A hormone-like small protein that
acts upon the thymus and other organs associated with the immune system to
keep them from over-reacting to an insult.27

Cytokines. Small proteins produced by various cells in the body that induce the
generation of specialized types of white blood cells, signal them to come to the
site of an insult and help in their passage through tissues.27,28

Lymphokines. Proteins of varying sizes that are produced by different types of
white blood cells that tell related cells to transform themselves into more
functional cell types that can release substances capable of destroying an
invading microorganism.29,30

Gut protective substances.

Immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, IgA). Complex proteins, better known as
antibodies, that make up a significant portion of the proteins found in complete
first milking colostrum. These antibodies were produced by the mother's immune
system in response to her exposure to many different microorganisms during her
lifetime and then transferred into the colostrum prior to birth of the calf. There is
no evidence that any of these antibodies are found intact in the blood of
individuals who ingest colostrum by mouth. However, many of these antibodies
are reactive against bacteria, viruses and fungi that infect the gastrointestinal
tract of humans and there is scientific evidence that some of them can survive
passage through the digestive system.31,32

Transfer factors. Small proteins produced in response to the body's exposure
to certain types of microorganisms, particularly those that reside in deep tissues
for a long period of time, like Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They are specific for a
particular microorganism and are carried inside of certain types of specialized
white blood cells. Transfer factors have limited effectiveness alone in defending
the body against infection by such microorganisms, but, rather, act in concert
with various white blood cells and other factors in an attempt to keep the
microorganisms under control.
33,34,35

Lactoferrin. A mineral-binding carrier protein that attaches to available iron.
Certain aerobic bacteria, like E. coli, require iron to reproduce and, therefore,
lactoferrin is an effective substance, when operating in the presence of a specific
antibody, to impede the growth of some microorganisms in the gut. A broad
number of additional claims have been made by some providers of colostrum for
human consumption regarding the application of lactoferrin as an immunoregulating
substance with antiviral, antibacterial and anti-tumor properties. To
date, none of these claims have been adequately substantiated through properly
controlled studies.36,37

Transferrin. Another mineral-binding carrier protein that attaches to available
iron and can act independently or in concert with lactoferrin to impede the growth
of certain aerobic bacteria, particularly in the gut.36

Lysozyme. A very powerful enzyme that is capable of attaching itself to the cell
wall of certain pathogenic bacteria and degrading selected proteins, leaving
holes in the wall of the bacteria.38

Lactoperoxidase. A mildly effective enzyme that can also attach to the wall of
certain bacteria, degrade other selected proteins and interfere with the ability of
the bacteria to replicate.38

Xanthine Oxidase. Another mildly effective enzyme that can also attach to the
wall of certain bacteria, degrade different proteins than those affected by
lactoperoxidase and also interfere with the ability of the bacteria to replicate.38

White blood cells (leukocytes). Primarily three types of functional white blood
cells are present in colostrum, including neutrophils, macrophages and
polymorphonuclear cells. Each has the ability to phagocytize microorganisms
and other foreign bodies and apply substances carried internally to the
destruction of the microorganisms. Their functions are dramatically enhanced
when antibodies first attach to the microorganisms.22

Oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates. Complex carbohydrates (sugars) that
can adhere to specific sites on the inner surface of the gastrointestinal tract and
prevent the attachment of microorganisms.39

The Growth Factors.

Growth hormone. Very small quantities of growth hormone are found in
complete first milking colostrum, but that is all that is required since this hormone
is extremely potent. It has a direct effect on almost every cell type and
significantly influences the proliferation of new cells, particularly their rate of
generation. Scientific studies have shown that continued ingestion of small
amounts of growth hormone are beneficial in limiting the ongoing deterioration of
cells associated with the aging process.40,41

Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its
closely related counterpart insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2) are potent
hormones that are found in association with almost all cells in the body. They
are part of a group of more than 90 different proteins, called the "IGF Binding
Protein (IGFBP) Superfamily", that is responsible for the processes by which
cells grow and reproduce. These substances are also responsible for
maintenance of the metabolic pathways by which cells convert glucose to
glycogen, a primary metabolic energy resource, and assemble amino acids to
create proteins. The key event that triggers the functions of the various proteins
in the IGFBP Superfamily is the attachment of IGF-1 to a specific receptor site on
the surface of a cell. Many of the growth factors found in colostrum and
previously defined by their functions are now considered part of the IGFBP
Superfamily. This includes the following substances, among others. 42,43

Transforming growth factors A & B. Induces the transformation of cells
from an immature form to a mature, functional status.

Epithelial growth factor. Involved in the generation and maintenance of
cells in the epithelial layers of the skin.

Fibroblast growth factor. Associated with the regeneration of various
types of tissue, including skin and other organs.

Platelet-derived growth factor. Responsible for the generation of cells
and functions associated with blood clotting.

The Metabolic Factors.

Leptin. A small hormone-like protein that can suppress appetite, enhance
metabolic rate and lead to body weight reduction. Mature fat cells (adipocytes)
release leptin in the presence of insulin, which is also found in colostrum.
Insulinproducing pancreatic beta-cells have receptor sites for leptin and it is believed
that the size of fat cells may be a major factor in determining the amount of leptin
released. The binding of leptin to its receptors in the presence of insulin initiates
a cascade of chemical signals to the hypothalamus resulting in appetite
suppression and the triggering of fat metabolism in the liver. Leptin deficiency
may be associated with obesity, particularly in diabetic individuals.
44,45,46Insulin. A hormone required for the effective metabolic utilization of glucose.
Insulin binds to specific receptor sites on cells, facilitating their interaction with
IGF-1 and, thus, initiating the conversion of glucose to glycogen, a major source
of metabolic energy.22

Vitamin-binding proteins. Smaller proteins that act as carriers to deliver Bcomplex
vitamins to the body. Carrier proteins and the associated vitamins folate
(B6), B12 and orotic acid are found in colostrum.22

Fat-associated vitamins. Significant quantities of vitamins A, D, E and K are
dissolved in or associated with the fat in colostrum.22

Mineral-binding proteins. In addition to interfering with the replication of certain
microorganisms, the iron-binding proteins, lactoferrin and transferrin, also serve
to capture iron from ingested sources and present it in a form that can be readily
absorbed by the body. Lactoferrin can also bind copper and deliver it in a form
suitable for absorption by the body. In addition, there are two carrier proteins in
colostrum that assist in the absorption of calcium. They are casein, which is also
an abundant source of amino acids to build new protein molecules, and alphalactalbumin,
which is present in colostrum very soon after birth.22

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). A phosphorylated nucleotide in a
high-energy state that is applicable to energy transfer in metabolism. This is the
lowest energy form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the primary energy transfer
molecule in normal metabolism. AMP can be recycled to ATP through existent
intracellular pathways and, thus, colostrum can serve as a resource for these
energy transfer substances.22

Enzyme inhibitors. These have been called "permeability factors" by other
manufacturers, but are actually small proteins that slow down or inhibit the
breakdown of proteins by certain enzymes. They provide limited protection to the
immune, growth and metabolic factors as they pass through the digestive tract.
22

HEALTH-RELATED BENEFITS OF COLOSTRUM INGESTION

High quality first milking bovine colostrum is not a panacea that will cure every
disease as claimed by many distributors of colostrum products. However, bovine
colostrum is an amazing resource of substances necessary to support the
development and repair of cells and tissues, assure the effective and efficient
metabolism of nutrients and establish and maintain a healthy immune system. As
such, it represents a very dynamic means to stabilize bodily functions that are
frequently out of control in various disease states. In other circumstances, these
bodily functions may just need the boost that colostrum can provide to ward off
disease. The use of colostrum for its health-related benefits is not a new concept. In India,
where cows are sacred, colostrum is delivered to the home with the milk and is
used for medicinal purposes to treat everything from age-related symptoms to
the common cold. This practice began several thousand years ago with
Ayurvedic physicians and sacred healers known as Rishis. In the Scandinavian
countries, the birth of a calf is celebrated by the making of a pudding for human
consumption from the extra colostrum after the calf is fed. This practice has gone
on for centuries and is intended to promote good health. Research conducted in
these countries as early as the late 18th century showed the benefits of colostrum
on the health and development of cattle and laid the groundwork for the early
medicinal use of colostrum by humans. The early Amish farmers in America
practiced this same ritual.

Gastrointestinal Diseases

Leaky gut syndrome is a very common condition wherein the mucosal lining of
the small intestine becomes very inflamed and unusually large spaces develop
between the cells that make up the mucosal lining. The large spaces between
the cells allows bacteria, viruses, fungi and other potentially toxic material to
enter the bloodstream and other parts of the body. In addition, undigested
proteins, carbohydrates and fats can pass through the intestinal lining and can
represent a serious health risk.Medical research has shown that the inflammatory
process responsible for leaky gut syndrome can be initiated in many different ways,
including the following. Excess ingestion of alcohol and/or drinks containing caffeine.
Continuous use of antibiotics resulting in destruction of the inherent bacterial flora in the intestine.
Ingestion of foods contaminated by certain bacteria or parasites.
Routine ingestion of corticosteroids, such as prednisone, and/or nonsteroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs like aspirin or ibuprofen. Consumption of large quantities
of highly refined carbohydrates, such as the sugar found in candy, cookies, cakes and
soft drinks. Routine dietary supplementation with high quality bovine colostrum can be of
substantial value when this condition occurs.47,48 In leaky gut syndrome, the
individual's normal protective mechanisms against invading infectious bacteria,
viruses, fungi and parasites are severely compromised. Colostrum contains a
diversity of antibodies that can bind to invading microorganisms and hold them in
check while they are engulfed and destroyed by white blood cells arriving in the
area. The most important of these antibody molecules in colostrum are of the IgA
class. They not only attach themselves to an invading microorganism, but are
also able to stick to tissues, holding the pathogen in a fixed position and making
it more susceptible to destruction by white blood cells. The lactoferrin transferrin,
and enzymes in colostrum also significantly aid the entire process of destroying
invading microorganisms. The growth factors in colostrum, growth hormone (GH) and the insulin-like
growth factors (IGFs), are also of substantial benefit. It is well documented in the
scientific literature that the influence of growth hormone on the proliferation of
new cells in the body operates primarily through what is known as the GH/IGF
axis where the presence of growth hormone enhances the many effects of the
insulin-like growth factors.49

IGF-1 is like the captain of a ship. It directs the many
activities of a multitude of specialized proteins found in every cell in the body,
including the process by which the cell grows and reproduces itself. IGF-1 is also
responsible for maintenance of the metabolic pathways by which the cell uses
glucose to make energy and builds proteins from amino acids. Therefore, the
presence of sufficient quantities of growth hormone and the insulin-like growth
factors in the circulation will support the repair of damaged tissue.
31,50,51

Leaky gut syndrome also results in significant mineral deficiencies due to
damage to the carrier proteins by the associated inflammatory process. Many
essential minerals are not absorbed into the body unless they are attached to
specialized carrier proteins. Two of the most important minerals, iron and copper,
bind to the lactoferrin and transferrin found in colostrum, which function as
effective carrier proteins. In addition, the casein in colostrum, which is an
excellent source of the essential amino acids that the body cannot make, is also
a highly functional carrier protein for calcium, allowing it to be effectively
absorbed from the small intestine. 22
Individuals afflicted with ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease also usually benefit
significantly from routine dietary supplementation with high quality bovine
colostrum.52,53

First, dairy cows are usually exposed during their lifetime to
pathogenic forms of both E. coli and Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, infectious
agents presumed to be associated with these conditions. Thus, the colostrum
from these animals will contain immunoglobulins directed against both of these
organisms. In addition, as for leaky gut syndrome, the broad diversity of
antibodies against a multitude of potentially pathogenic microorganisms present
in high quality colostrum will also be beneficial. Further, as also discussed above,
the presence of sufficient quantities of growth hormone and the insulin-like
growth factors found in bovine colostrum will support the repair of damaged
tissue.

Enteric infections with potentially pathogenic bacteria, including coliforms, like E.
coli, Staphylococcus species, Streptococcus species, and Salmonella species
can also be abated. Antibodies to all of these pathogens are found in high quality
colostrum.52,54,55,56However, the antibodies are most beneficial when they are
present early in an infection and, therefore, maximum protection is afforded
against enteric infections by routine ingestion of high quality colostrum as a
dietary supplement. In addition, as in leaky bowel syndrome, the lactoferrin, transferrin
and enzymes present in colostrum will aid in destroying an invading
pathogen once the antibody molecules immobilize it.
Controlled studies in humans have shown that substances present in bovine
colostrum inhibit the binding of Helicobactor pylori, the causative agent in ulcer
lesions, to receptors on the intestinal wall. 57,58

Respiratory Diseases

In dealing with something as elusive as the common cold or as invasive as
influenza, the best offense is a good defense. Coupling a nutritious diet with a
program of exercise and routine supplementation with high quality bovine
colostrum is the best possible defense. As we age, our immune system loses its
ability to regulate itself and to respond to a challenge efficiently. This occurs
primarily because the thymus, a glandular structure in the upper chest that is
considered the seat of the immune system, begins to shrink after puberty and
almost disappears by the time we are 50-60 years old.59,60,61

T-lymphocytes (Tcells) are generated from stem cells in the bone marrow and mature in the
thymus. Some of these cells, called Killer T-lymphocytes, generate cell-mediated
responses and directly destroy abnormal cells that have specific sites on their
surface that are recognized by the Killer T- lymphocytes. Helper/Suppressor Tlymphocytes,
a second type of cell, regulate the immune system by controlling
the strength and quality of every immune response. It has been shown that the
thymus can be restored to normal function by the growth factors in colostrum.62,63,64,65,66
In addition, colostrum contains specific hormones that regulate the
functions of the thymus and other substances that help to keep the immune
system under control and poised to respond to possible infections before they
become established.35,36,37,67

Cardiovascular Diseases

High quality first milking bovine colostrum does not contain any
cholesterol and can be used safely by individuals with high serum
cholesterol and high triglycerides. In fact, there are biologically active
substances present in bovine colostrum that would be very beneficial to
individuals at risk for atherosclerotic plaque formation. Bovine colostrum contains
leptin, a hormone-like substance that not only suppresses appetite, but also
orchestrates how the body uses and incorporates fat.
Growth hormone has been shown to work in concert with IGF-1 in the functioning
and repair of heart muscle.68

Receptors for both growth hormone and IGF-1 are
found on all heart muscle cells and scientific evidence indicates that growth
hormone may act directly on the heart, whereas the effects of IGF-1 may be
indirect and operate through separate hormonal pathways.69,70

Research studies

have also shown that both growth hormone and IGF-1 have stimulatory effects
on heart muscle cells and it is believed that this occurs through the pathway by which the cells use calcium.
71It has also been shown that administration of growth hormone to patients with congestive heart failure can induce a marked
improvement in heart function and clinical status. 72

Metabolic Diseases

Both Type I and II diabetes have an associated genetic component through
which individuals appear to be predisposed. Diabetics also have low levels of
IGF-1 in their circulation.49,73

Daily supplementation of the diet of the diabetic patient with a high quality
first milking bovine colostrum will provide a functional
source for the restoration of diminished levels of IGF-1, resulting in increased
utilization of available glucose. This becomes extremely important for the Type I
diabetic to assure effective and controlled utilization of available glucose once
his/her insulin levels are restored. In the Type II diabetic, where sufficient insulin
is available, it has been shown experimentally that restoration of reduced IGF-1
levels results in an enhancement of glucose utilization with a corresponding
diminution of glucose levels in the blood and urine.74

Autoimmune Diseases

Diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis,
among others, are complex clinical conditions with variable outcomes. All of the
these diseases represent an immune system that is out of control and could be
restored and regulated through routine dietary supplementation with a high
quality first milking colostrum. As indicated above (see Respiratory Diseases), as
we age, our immune system loses its ability to regulate itself efficiently, primarily
because the thymus begins to shrink after puberty and essentially disappears by
the time we are 50-60 years old.59,60,61
Scientific studies have shown that the thymus can be restored to normal function by IGF-1
62,63,64,65,66

,the levels of which diminish in the circulation with age. In addition, colostrum contains a)
specific hormones, the alpha and beta chains of thymosin, that are known to regulate the
functions of the thymus; and b) proline-rich peptide (PRP), a/k/a thymulin, that
has been shown to keep the immune system under control.35,36,37,67

It is also well documented that IGF-1 and the associated Superfamily of proteins
found in colostrum operate in concert with growth hormone in the regeneration
and repair of damaged cells.75Routine dietary supplementation with high quality
bovine colostrum is, therefore, desirable for individuals afflicted with autoimmune
diseases in order to assure that sufficient levels of IGF-1 and growth hormone
are continuously available in the circulation. In addition, since IGF-1 is
responsible for directing the conversion of glucose to glycogen and glycogen is a
primary metabolic energy resource, such dietary supplementation could also help
such individuals overcome the associated lethargy normally experienced with
such diseases.

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)The primary site for maturation of T-lymphocytes and their release into the body
in response to an insult is the thymus gland. Unfortunately, as we age this organ
shrinks and loses its functions and valuable immune response capabilities are
diminished or lost. This is a serious consideration in the individual infected with
the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), since the immune system is the
primary focus of attack by the virus. As indicated above, the IGF-1 found in
colostrum has been shown to be capable of restoring the thymus to its normal
functioning capacity. In addition, colostrum contains both the alpha and beta
chains of thymosin, which are hormones that have been shown to operate
independently and in concert to promote the functions of the thymus. Separate
studies in experimental animals have also shown that daily ingestion of a high
quality bovine colostrum results in a more expedient and effective response by
the immune system when a potentially infectious microorganism challenges the
body. In dealing with infectious diseases like AIDS, experts agree that the best
offense is a good defense and that having the healthiest possible immune
system, that is more capable of responding to a challenge, will likely assist in
warding off infection and/or help in prolonging the development of the disease.
Other substances found in bovine colostrum may also prove beneficial to AIDS
patients. In limited studies, lactoferrin, an iron-binding component of colostrum,
has been shown to completely prevent infection with certain viruses to which the
AIDS patient may become susceptible.36,76,77

Independent scientific studies have also shown that the lactoferrin found in bovine
colostrum is at least twice as potent as that found naturally in humans.37

The antibodies present in high quality bovine colostrum have also proven to be
effective in helping to limit the severe diarrhea usually associated with the
opportunistic enteric infections experienced by many AIDS patients. Actual
studies conducted in persons suffering severe diarrhea in association with
immune system deficiency evidenced that over half of the patients treated with
bovine colostrum remained free of diarrhea for at least four weeks.78,79

The wasting associated with the evolution of the disease in AIDS patients
represents the destruction of muscle mass and is usually paralleled by the
development of extreme fatigue and loss of energy. As described above, having
a sufficient quantity of IGF-1 in the circulation, as would occur by routine dietary
supplementation with high quality colostrum, assures the effective and efficient
conversion of glucose to glycogen, supporting metabolic energy requirements to
help overcome the developing lethargy and fatigue. In addition, having sufficient
IGF-1 available also helps to assure proper utilization of amino acids in the
building of proteins required to maintain muscle mass. Body Composition and
Performance

Supplementation with bovine colostrum has been shown to affect body
composition in a study using a small group of trained athletes. After 8 weeks of
daily supplementation with 20 grams of a powdered colostrum preparation, lean body mass increased significantly in the colostrum group compared to a placebo
group given whey. There was no improvement in exercise performance in either
group.80

Other workers found increased levels of serum insulin, IGF-1 and
immunoglobulins in a group of athletes consuming a liquid colostrum drink daily
for 8 training days, with no improvement in vertical jump ability.81

Other studies have found that supplementation with a “concentrated bovine
colostrum protein powder” daily for 8 weeks did not increase serum IGF-1 levels,
but appeared to improve recovery from a run to exhaustion test during the
second half of the 8 week period. The placebo used was whey.
82

A second study
by the same research group using the same colostrum preparation and dosage
and a whey placebo found that performance by trained young women rowers in
the colostrum group improved by the ninth week of a 9 week training program, as
compared to placebo.83

In a separate study, routine daily supplementation with a
colostrum powder was shown to increase the physical stamina of field hockey
players.84

In other studies, resistance-trained subjects received either bovine colostrum, a
casein-whey placebo, colostrum + an additional supplement (containing creatine,
carnitine, and taurine), or the supplement only, for 12 weeks. All subjects
consumed the same amount of protein. The colostrum + supplement group
showed a 5.7 lb increase in fat free mass (FFM), compared to 2.8 lbs in the
colostrum group and 4.2 lbs in the supplement only group.
85 Measurements of
training adaptations indicated that the colostrum + supplement group had the
greatest improvements in bench press and leg press performance.
86

SAFETY

There appear to be no adverse effects due to the use of colostrum as a dietary
supplement. However, the presence of IGF in colostrum and the reported
increase in serum IGF levels following colostrum use has raised some concerns
about its safety. Multiple studies have shown that there is an elevated level of
IGF-1 in the circulation of patients with certain types of malignancies including,
prostate cancer87,88, breast cancer89,90,colorectal cancer91 and acute lymphoblastic
leukemia92

The fact that IGF-1 is a growth promoting substance led to the
erroneous conclusion by some that it is a causative agent in malignant disease
that would promote the growth of tumors. However, more recent studies have
shown that tumor cells have poorly functioning or modified receptors for IGF-1 on
their surface, and, since the binding of IGF-1 to a cell surface receptor triggers
many functions in all cells, unbound, available IGF-1 will back-up in the
circulation.93,94,95,96

Therefore, the higher levels of IGF-1 found in the circulation of
cancer patients are a manifestation of their tumor and not a causative factor. A
similar manifestation of receptor impairment and commensurate alteration in
circulating levels of IGF-1 is seen in diabetic individuals.97

COLLECTION AND PROCESSING OF COLOSTRUMSource of Colostrum
The antibodies found in the blood of a pregnant cow that are eventually
transferred into the colostrum were all derived by the immune system of that cow
in response to foreign substances to which the cow had been exposed during its
lifetime. These foreign substances include the various vaccines administered to
protect the animal against different potential disease-causing microorganisms;
clinical and non-clinical contagious infections experienced as a result of contact
with other members of the herd, including microorganisms present in their
excrement; and microorganisms vectored from handling and contact with
equipment and other species.

Some distributors of colostrum state that colostrum should only come from cows
that are pasture-fed since that provides more antibody diversity. Although it is
theoretically possible that some pathogens may be present in the soil and be
vectored to the cow, this is highly unlikely since microorganisms that would
ordinarily be found in clean soil and on grasses suitable for grazing would not be
pathogenic to mammals - otherwise all of the animals in the herd would be sick
most of the time.Pathogens found in a pasture or any other environment would
most likely be present as a result of animal excrement.

In the United States, it was recognized many years ago that open pasturing of
dairy cows, including breeding and unsupported calf delivery in the pasture
environment, was not conducive to good herd management practices and led to
a higher incidence of disease; affected milk production volumes and the quality of
milk. It also failed to provide the support necessary to assure that calves received
adequate volumes of colostrum of sufficient quality to promote their proper
development. A large number of dairy farms in the United States have shifted to
the use of so-called "dry lot" techniques that restrict the cows to little or no
pasture grazing. The animals are kept either inside of a structure or outside
within clean, non-grass, fenced environments and fed a well-defined diet
containing the required nutrients to assure effective development and
maintenance of their health status. These areas can be cleaned routinely, either
manually or automatically, to assure removal of excrement. The animals in such
environments are frequently divided into groups reflecting the number of lactation
cycles they have experienced and their average milk production capabilities.
This approach allows the dairy producer to more effectively control disease
development and to recognize and separate animals with problems, regulate
milking schedules, and control the quality and flavor of the milk.
It has also become a dairy industry standard in the United States that all
pregnant cows due to deliver are monitored every 1-2 hours around the clock.
For this purpose, most dairy farms have a "maternity ward" away from the main
herd that allows for the required monitoring and facilitates calf handling and
colostrum collection within the first six hours after birth. It is also very common
for producers to prevent newborn calves from suckling as they receive better
care and better colostrum delivery if they are nursed by hand. In addition, when calves are removed from their mothers at birth, they have less exposure to the
maternity area, decreasing disease transmission through contact with fecal
material and the mother's teats.

Companies marketing the highest quality bovine colostrum usually have access
to at least 500 dairy herds averaging about 300 cows each. Since cows are
biological creatures and, thus, will not all have the same levels of biologically
active components in their individual colostrum, collecting from a large number of
animals in different herds and manufacturing from large pools of colostrum
supports the control of product uniformity and assures a maximum level of all of
the beneficial components in each production lot.
Collection and Processing

True colostrum must be obtained in the first milking taken during the 6 hours after
birth of the calf. Many years ago the United States Department of Health defined
colostrum as the "milk" collected in the first six milkings after birth. This was done
to keep colostrum out of milk intended for human consumption since it was
believed then that it was only suitable for consumption by the calf. However,
science has now significantly advanced our understanding of what colostrum
really is, how it is formed and the many benefits that it can convey to humans as
well as calves. We now know that, in the pregnant cow, colostrum formation
ceases at birth and that the mother begins to reabsorb the active components
about 6-8 hours after birth if the colostrum is not collected. We also know that the
colostrum should be collected in one unit since, as soon as a small volume of
colostrum is removed, a much larger volume of transitional milk will enter the
udder and dilute the residual colostrum.

Apparently, the scientific facts have not reached every manufacturer of colostrum
since some of them still market "colostrum" that is collected from multiple
milkings after the birth of the calf. This obviously results in much more "product"
per cow, but the resulting colostrum powders are deficient in many of the most
beneficial components and the remaining constituents have been significantly
diluted. Thus, they will never provide the same range of benefits that can be
realized with high quality first milking colostrum.
High quality colostrum must be collected under very stringent conditions. These
conditions require that a) colostrum be included only from cows that have
experienced three or more live births to maximize the quality of bioactives and
assure antibody diversity; b) no colostrum be collected from any animal
evidencing any form of inflammation of the udder; and c) no colostrum
evidencing blood, mucus, somatic cell clumps or strings, other foreign matter or
discoloration be included.

Colostrum should be frozen immediately after it is collected and then transferred
as quickly as possible, in the frozen state, to the processing facility. This is very
important since no milk product is completely free of bacteria when it is collected
and leaving the colostrum in the liquid state would encourage some bacteria to
reproduce, spoiling the colostrum and, perhaps, generating large numbers of
disease-causing bacteria.

Some colostrum manufacturers claim that freezing will destroy the biologically
active components and make them insoluble and impossible to absorb in the
body. Freezing, in itself, does not alter the water-soluble nature of organic
substances such as those found in colostrum. For this to occur in colostrum
would require that the configuration of the many protein molecules be changed,
such as occurs when they are heat-denatured at excessive temperatures, often
causing them to precipitate from solution. In fact, freezing of protein solutions is
the principal means of storage by laboratories to maintain the integrity and
biological activity of molecules. It is well established in scientific practice that the
method used for thawing frozen specimens, rather than freezing, can denature
proteins and, to avoid this, the protein solution must be thawed slowly at a
temperature that does not exceed 98.6º F/37º C.

When the individual colostrum units arrive at the processing facility, they must be
thawed very gently and then examined and tested thoroughly to assure their
quality. They can then be pooled together and processed by specialized methods
that maintain the integrity of all of the biologically-active components to a)
destroy bacteria that may have been present; and b) remove at least 98% of the
water to yield a dry powder with good storage capabilities. These are complex
and costly procedures and if a manufacturer cannot provide assurances that they
have been carefully followed, it is highly likely that the resulting "colostrum"
powder will yield few, if any, benefits no matter when or how it was collected.

Complete Colostrum

To maximize the benefits from a colostrum powder, it must not only meet the
above criteria, but it must also be derived from complete colostrum that is
unadulterated and contains everything found in true colostrum as it is generated
in the cow. In addition, it should contain only complete colostrum and no
additives or supplements that might change the characteristics of the biologically
active components or interfere with their effectiveness.

Some companies that market so-called “colostrum” physically or chemically
remove some of the components, like the fat, claiming that it avoids the
development of rancidity and increases the shelf-life of the powder. This
approach not only changes the composition of the colostrum and the relationship
of the active components, but also removes some very valuable constituents, like
the fat-soluble vitamins and a portion of the growth factors. The argument that
removing the fat increases the shelf life is, in itself, completely without scientific
merit since rancidity in dairy products is associated with fluid materials and is not
a consideration for a properly dried colostrum powder. In addition to acting as a carrier vehicle for certain components, the fat in
colostrum plays a very significant role in assuring that the maximum benefits are
available from ingested colostrum powder. High quality colostrum also contains a
significant amount of casein, a complex, complete protein that contains beneficial
essential amino acids. When complete colostrum enters the stomach, an enzyme
(rennin) naturally present there acts upon the casein and fat to form a soft
cottage cheese-like curd that entrains the active components and protects them
from exposure to stomach acid and digestive enzymes. This helps to assure that
as much of each biologically active component as possible reaches the small
intestine, where absorption into the blood stream occurs.

Chemical Composition

The following is a graphic representation of the actual findings from studies done
at a major dairy product testing laboratory to characterize the amount of key
ingredients in bovine colostrum in comparison to what is present in products
offered for human consumption. The material in the middle set of bars, identified
as Ideal Colostrum Powder was a carefully prepared powder made from a large
pool of colostrum that was all definitely collected within six hours after birth.
Comparison of these results with each of the tested products shown clearly
demonstrates the differences between these products. The colostrum powder
from AK is virtually identical in chemical composition to the Ideal Colostrum
Powder. In sharp contrast, the Competitor Colostrum Powder has most of the fat
removed and the relationship between the remaining components has been
dramatically altered.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
% of Total Solids
AK Colostrum Powder Ideal Colostrum Powder Competitor Colostrum Powder
Fat
Lactose
Protein
Casein
Albumin

Does this really mean that the competitor product would provide less health
benefits than the AK colostrum powder? The answer to that question becomes
evident based upon the comparative amount of one of the most important
biologically active components in colostrum, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1).
The Endocrinology Laboratory of a major US college of veterinary medicine
performed these studies. The results are shown in the graph below. It is obvious
that the colostrum powder from AK contains almost the same amount of IGF-1 as
the Ideal Colostrum Powder. Three production lots of the Competitor Colostrum
Powder were tested to verify the findings and none of them contained more than
60% of the IGF-1 found in the Ideal Colostrum Powder. Less IGF-1 means less
benefit and it can be presumed that the amount of the other key components is
similarly reduced.

100
200
300
400
500

AK Colostrum
Powder
Ideal Colostrum
Powder
Product B Product C Product D
IGF-1 (ng/ml)

Summary & Conclusions

Colostrum is an amazing material that, like many other things in nature, reflects
the evolutionary development of a unique composition that will serve the needs
of the offspring for which it is intended. The most unique of the colostrums from
mammalian species occurs in bovine species where everything required for the
development of a healthy, productive offspring is provided in the colostrum. As
such, it provides a specialized resource that offers the broadest possible
spectrum of biologically active substances that can promote the development of
a sound body mass, assure effective and efficient metabolism and support the
activation and maintenance of a fully functional immune system capable of
combating potential insults from microorganisms and other deleterious sources.
Bovine colostrum is also compatible with almost any species and can readily
convey its full benefits to humans by routine dietary supplementation without any
significant adverse effects. However, it is very important to recognize that all colostrum products are not the
same and, despite the claims made by their manufacturers, they do not all
contain every beneficial component at an optimum concentration and, in many
cases, they have been manipulated and may be missing some of the essential
components. When choosing a colostrum product, one should be certain that it is made
from only first milking bovine colostrum collected within 6 hours after birth
of the calf and that the colostrum is "complete" and that none of the components
have been removed, including the fat.

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u p r e g u l a ti o n i n d u c e d b y l e i s h m a n i a s i s i n m i c e , Br a in Be h a v Immu n o l 2 0 0 2 ;
1 6 ( 4 ) :4 5 0 - 6 0 .
2 8 .So l o m o n s NW ; Mo d u l a ti o n o f th e i mm u n e s ys te m a n d th e r e s p o n s e
a g a i n s t p a th o g e n s w i th b o v i n e c o l o s tr u m c o n c e n tr a tes , Eu r J C l i n N u tr 2 0 0 2 ;
5 6 ( S3 ) :S2 4 - 8 .
2 9 .Pi d o - L o p e z J , e t a l ; Mo l e c u l a r q u a n ti ta ti o n o f th ym i c o u tp u t i n m i c e a n d
th e e ffe c t o f IL - 7 , Eu r J Immu n o l 2 0 0 2 ; 3 2 ( 1 0 ) :2 8 2 7- 3 6 .
3 0 .Sa i to H , e t a l ; T o p i c a l a n ti g e n p r o v o c a ti o n i n c re a s e s th e n u m b e r o f
i mm u n o r e a c ti v e IL - 4 , IL - 5 a n d IL - 6 p o s i ti v e c e l l s in th e n a s a l m u c o s a o f p a ti e n ts w i th p e r e n n i a l a l l e r g i c r h i n i ti s , In t Ar c h Al l e r g y Imm u n o l 1 9 9 7 ;
1 1 4 ( 1 ) :8 1 - 5 .
3 1 .N o r d J , e t a l ; T r e a tm e n t wi th b o v i n e h y p e r i mm u n e c o l o s tr u m o f c r yp to -
s p o r i d i a l d i a r r h e a i n AID S p a ti e n ts , AID S 1 9 9 0 ; 4 ( 6) :5 8 1 - 4 .
3 2 .R u m p J A, e t a l ; T r e a tm e n t o f d i a r r h e a i n h u m a n imm u n o d e fi c i e n c y v i r u s -
i n fe c te d p a ti e n ts w i th i mm u n o g l o b u l i n s fr o m b o v i n e c o l o s tr u m , C l i n In v e s ti g
1 9 9 2 ; 7 0 ( 7 ) :5 8 8 - 9 4 .
3 3 .Ki r k p a tr i c k , C H ; Ac ti v i ti e s a n d c h a r a c te r i s ti c s o f tr a n s fe r fa c to r s ;
Bi o th e r a p y 1 9 9 6 ; 9( 1 - 3 ) : 1 3 - 1 6 .
3 4 .Ki r k p a tr i c k , C H ; T r a n s fe r fa c to r s : i d e n ti fi c a ti on o f c o n s e r v e d s e q u e n c e s
i n tr a n s fe r fa c to r m o l e c u l e s ; Mo l . Me d . 2 0 0 0 Ap r .; 6( 4 ) : 3 3 2 - 4 1 .
3 5 .L a wr e n c e , H S, Bo r k o ws k y, W ; T r a n s fe r fa c to r - c ur r e n t s ta tu s a n d fu tu r e
p r o s p e c ts ; Bi o th e r a p y 1 9 9 6 ; 9( 1 - 3 ) :1 - 5 .
3 6 .L o n n e r d a l B, I y e r S; L a c to fe r r i n : mo l e c u l a r s tr uc tu r e a n d b i o l o g i c a l
fu n c ti o n , An n R e v N u tr i ti o n 1 9 9 5 ; 1 3 :9 3 - 1 1 0 .
3 7 .Br o c k J ; L a c to fe r r i n : a m u l ti fu n c ti o n a l i mmu n o r eg u l a to r y p r o te i n . Imm u n o l
T o d a y 1 9 9 5 ; 1 6 ( 9 ) :4 1 7 - 1 9 .
3 8 .Ku s s e n d r a g e r KD , v a n H o o i j d o n k AC ; L a c to p e r o x i d as e : p h y s i c o - c h e m i c a l
p r o p e r ti e s , o c c u r r e n c e , m e c h a n i s m of a c ti o n a n d a p pl i c a ti o n s , Br i t J N u tr
2 0 0 0 ; 8 4 ( Su p p l 1 ) :S1 9 - 2 5 .
3 9 .Go p a l PK, Gi l l H S; Ol i g o s a c c h a r i d e s a n d g l y c o c o nj u g a te s i n b o v i n e m i l k
a n d c o l o s tr u m , Br i t J N u tr 2 0 0 0 ; 8 4 ( Su p p l 1 ) :S6 9 - 7 4.
4 0 .C a m e r o n C M, e t a l ; T h e a c u te e ffe c ts o f g r o wth ho r m o n e o n a m i n o a c i d
tr a n s p o r t a n d p r o te i n s y n th e s i s a r e d u e to i ts i n s ul i n - l i k e a c ti o n , En d o c r i n o l
1 9 8 8 ; 1 2 2 ( 2 ) :4 7 1 - 4 .
4 1 .Sh i n g Y, El a g a b r u n M; Pu r i fi c a ti o n a n d c h a r a c te ri s ti c s o f a b o v i n e
c o l o s tr u m - d e r i v e d g r o wth fa c to r , Mo l e c En d o c r i n o l 19 8 7 ; 2 5 ( 3 ) :3 3 5 - 4 0 .
4 2 .H w a V, e t a l ; T h e i n s u l i n - l i k e g r o wth fa c to r b i nd i n g p r o te i n ( IGF BP)
s u p e r fam i l y , En d o c r i n R e v 1 9 9 9 ; 2 0 ( 6 ) :7 6 1 - 8 7 .
4 3 .L e R o i th D ; In s u l i n - l i k e g r o wth fa c to r r e c e p to r s a n d b i n d i n g p r o te i n s , C l i n
En d o c r i n o l Me ta b 1 9 9 6 ; 1 0 ( 1 ) :4 9 - 7 3 .
4 4 .Ba r a tta M; L e p ti n – fr om a s i g n a l o f a d i p o s i ty to a h o r m o n a l m e d i a to r i n
p e r i p h e r a l ti s s u e s , Me d Sc i Mo n i t 2 0 0 2 ; 8 ( 1 2 ) :2 8 2 - 92 .
4 5 .Gu e r r e - Mi l l o M; Ad i p o s e ti s s u e h o r mo n e s , J En d o c r i n o l In v e s t 2 0 0 2 ;
2 5 ( 1 0 ) :8 5 5 - 6 1 .
4 6 .Bj o r b a c k C , H o l l e n b e r g AN ; L e p ti n a n d m e l a n o c o r ti n s i g n a l i n g i n th e
h y p o th a l a m u s , Vi ta H o r m 2 0 0 2 ; 6 5 :2 8 1 - 3 1 1 .
4 7 .Pl a yfo r d R J , e t a l ; Bo v i n e c o l o s tr u m i s a h e a l th fo o d s u p p l e m e n t wh i c h
p r e v e n ts N SAID i n d u c e d g u t d a m a g e , Gu t 1 9 9 9 ; 4 4 :6 5 3- 8 . 4 8 .Pl a yfo r d R J , e t a l ; C o - a d m i n i s tr a ti o n o f th e h e al th fo o d s u p p l e m e n t,
b o v i n e c o l o s tr u m , r ed u c e s th e a c u te n o n - s te r o i d a l an ti - i n fl a mm a to r y d r u g -
i n d u c e d i n c r e a s e i n i n te s ti n a l p e r m e a b i l i t y , C l i n Sc i 2 0 0 1 ; 1 0 0 :6 2 7 - 3 3 .
4 9 .Be r e k e t A, L a n g C H , W i l s o n T A; Al te r a ti o n s i n the g r o wth h o r m o n e -
i n s u l i n - l i k e g r o wth fa c to r a x i s i n i n s u l i n d e p e n d e nt d i a b e te s me l l i tu s , H o r m
Me ta b R e s 1 9 9 9 ; 3 1( 2 - 3 ) : 1 7 2 - 8 1 .
5 0 .Ke l l y KM, Oh Y, Ga r g o s k y SE, Gu c e v Z , Ma ts u m o to T , H w a V, N g L ,
Si m p s o n D M, R o s e n fe l d R G; In s u l i n - l i k e g r o wth fa c tor - b i n d i n g p r o te i n s
( IGF BPs ) a n d th e i r r e g u l a to r y d y n a m i c s , In t J Bi o c he m C e l l Bi o l 1 9 9 6 ; 2 8( 6 ) :
6 1 9 - 3 7 .
5 1 .Pa n k o v YA; Gr o w th h o r m o n e a n d a p a r ti a l m e d i a to r o f i ts b i o l o g i c a l
a c ti o n , i n s u l i n - l i k e g r o wth fa c to r - 1 , Bi o c h e m i s tr y 1 9 9 9 ; 6 4( 1 ) : 1 - 7 .
5 2 .H o s s e i n i S, e t a l ; C o l o s tr u m a n d m i l k i n th e tr ea tm e n t o f d i s e a s e , Ad v
N u tr R e s 2 0 0 1 ; 1 0 :2 0 1 - 1 2 .
5 3 .Kh a n Z , e t a l ; U s e o f th e ‘ n e u tr a c e u ti c a l ’ b o v i ne c o l o s tr um fo r th e
tr e a tm e n t o f d i s ta l c o l i ti s ; r e s u l ts fr om an i n i ti al s tu d y , Al i m e n t Ph a r m a c o l
T h e r 2 0 0 2 ; 1 6 ( 1 1 ) :1 9 1 7 - 2 2 .
5 4 .F u n a to g a w a K, e t a l ; U s e o f i mm u n o g l o b u l i n e n r i ch e d b o v i n e c o l o s tr u m
a g a i n s t o r a l c h a l l e n g e w i th e n te r o h e m o r r h a g i c Es c h er i c h i a c o l i O1 5 7 :h 7 i n
m i c e , Mi c r o b i o l Imm un o l 2 0 0 2 ; 4 6 ( 1 1 ) :7 6 1 - 6 .
5 5 .H u p p e r tz H I, e t a l ; Bo v i n e c o l o s tr u m a m e l i o r a te s d i a r r h e a i n i n fe c ti o n
w i th d i a r r h e a g e n i c Es c h e r i c h i a c o l i , s h i g a to x i n - p ro d u c i n g E. c o l i a n d E. c o l i
e x p r e s s i n g h e m o l y s i n , J Pe d i a t Ga s tr o e n te r o l N u tr 19 9 9 ; 2 9 ( 4 ) :4 5 2 - 6 .
5 6 .L i s s n e r R , e t a l ; A s ta n d a r d i mm u n o g l o b u l i n p r e pa r a ti o n p r o d u c e d fr o m
b o v i n e c o l o s tr u m s h o ws a n ti b o d y r e a c ti v i t y a n d n e u tr a l i z a ti o n a c ti v i t y
a g a i n s t Sh i g a - l i k e to x i n s a n d EH EC - h e m o l y s i n o f Es he r i c h i a c o l i O 1 5 7 :h 7 ,
In fe c ti o n 1 9 9 6 ; 2 4 ( 5 ) :3 7 8 - 8 3 .
5 7 .Bi tz a n MM, e t a l ; In h i b i ti o n o f H e l i c o b a c te r p y lo r i a n d H e l i c o b a c te r
m us te l a e b i n d i n g to l i p i d r e c e p to r s b y b o v i n e c o l o s tr u m , J In fec t D i s 1 9 9 8 ;
1 7 ( 4 ) :9 5 5 - 6 1 .
5 8 .Ko r h o n e n H , S y v a o j a EL ; Ba c te r i c i d a l e ffe c t o f no r m a l a n d i mm u n e
s e r u m , c o l o s tr um a n d m i lk a g a i n s t H e l i c o b a c te r p y l or i , J Ap p l Ba c te r i o l 1 9 9 5 ;
7 8 ( 6 ) :6 5 5 - 6 2 .
5 9 .An d r e w D , As p i n a l l R ; Ag e - a s s o c i a te d th ym i c a tr op h y i s l i n k e d to a
d e c l i n e i n IL - 7 p r o d u c ti o n , Ex p G e r o n to l 2 0 0 2 ; 3 7 ( 2- 3 ) :4 5 5 - 6 3 .
6 0 .As p i n a l l R , e t a l ; Ag e - a s s o c i a te d c h a n g e s i n th ym o p o e s i s , Sp r i n g e r
Se m i n Imm u n o p a th o l 2 0 0 2 ; 2 4 ( 1 ) : 8 7 - 1 0 1 .
6 1 .F r y T J , Ma c k a l l C L ; C u r r e n t c o n c e p ts o f th ym i c ag i n g , Sp r i n g e r Se m i n
Immu n o p a th o l 2 0 0 2 ; 2 4 ( 1 ) :7 - 2 2 .
6 2 .Bi n z K, e t a l ; R e p o p u l a ti o n o f th e a tr o p h i e d th ym u s i n d i a b e ti c r a ts b y
i n s u l i n - l i k e g r o wth fa c to r - 1 , Pr o c N a t Ac a d Sc i 1 9 90 ; 8 7 ( 1 0 ) :3 6 9 0 - 4 . 6 3 .Bu r g e s s W , e t a l ; T h e imm u n e - e n d o c r i n e l o o p d u r in g a g i n g : r o l e o f g r o wth
h o r m o n e a n d i n s u l i n - l i k e g r o wth fa c to r - 1 , N e u r o i mm un o m o d u l a ti o n 1 9 9 9 ;
6 ( 1 - 2 ) :5 6 - 6 8 .
6 4 .C l a r k R , e t a l ; In s u l i n - l i k e g r o wth fa c to r - 1 s tim u l a ti o n o f l ym p h o p o e s i s , J
C l i n In v e s t 1 9 9 3 ; 9 2 ( 2 ) :5 4 0 - 8 .
6 5 .Ge ffn e r M; Effe c ts o f g r o wth h o r m o n e a n d i n s u l i n- l i k e g r o wth fa c to r - 1 o n
T - a n d B- l ym p h o c y te s a n d i mm u n e fu n c ti o n , Ac ta Pe d ia tr 1 9 9 7 ; 4 2 3 :7 6 - 9 .
6 6 .Bu r g e s s W , L i u Q, Z h o u J , T a n g Q, Oz a wa A, Va n Ho y R , Ar k i n s S,
D a n tz e r R , Ke l l y KW; T h e imm u n e - e n d o c r i n e l o o p d u r in g a g i n g : r o l e o f
g r o wth h o r m o n e a n d i n s u l i n - l i k e g r o wth fa c to r - 1 , N eu r o i mm un o m o d u l a ti o n
1 9 9 9 ; 6( 1 - 2 ) : 5 6 - 6 8 .
6 7 .H e F , e t a l ; Mo d u l a ti o n o f h u m a n h u m o r a l imm u n e r e s p o n s e th r o u g h
o r a l l y a d m i n i s te r e d b o v i n e c o l o s tr u m , F EMS Imm u n o l & Me d Mi c r o b i o l 2 0 0 1 ;
3 1 :9 3 - 6 .
6 8 .An wa r A, Ga s p z J M, Pa m p a l l o n a S, Z a h i d AA, Si g a ud P, Pi c h a r d C , Br i n k
M; Effe c t o f c o n g e s ti v e h e a r t fa i l u r e o n th e i n s u l in - l i k e g r o wth fa c to r - 1
s ys te m , Am J C a r d i o l 2 0 0 2 ; 9 0( 1 2 ) : 1 4 0 2 - 5 .
6 9 .Gr a n a ta R , Ga u n a C , Ar n o l fo E, Atr a g e n e D , Br o g l i o F , Po n ti R , R i c o tti E,
Gh i g o E; H 9 c 2 c a r d i a c m u s c l e c e l l s e x p r e s s i n s u l i n -l i k e g r o wth fa c to r
b i n d i n g p r o te i n - 3 ( IG F BP- 3 ) , J En d o c r i n o l In v e s t 2 00 2 2 5( S1 0 ) : 4 4 - 6 .
7 0 .L i H , D i m a y u g a P, Ya m a s h i ta M, Ya n o J , F o u r n i e r M, L e wi s M, C e r c e k B;
Ar te r i a l i n j u r y i n m i c e wi th s e v e r e i n s u l i n - l i k e g ro w th fa c to r - 1 ( IGF - 1 )
d e fi c i e n c y , J C a r d i o v a s c Ph a r m a c o l T h e r 2 0 0 2 ; 7( 4 ) : 2 2 7 - 3 3 .
7 1 .Va n D e n Be l d AW , Bo ts ML , J a n s s e n J A, Po l s H A, La m b e r ts SW , Gr o b b e e
D E; En d o g e n o u s h o r m o n e s a n d c a r o ti d a th e r o s c l e r o s i s i n e l d e r l y m e n , Am J
Ep i d e m i o l 2 0 0 3 ; 1 5 7( 1 ) : 2 5 - 3 1 .
7 2 .H o s s e i n i S, In s e r r a P, Ar a g h i - N i k n am M, W a ts o n RR ; C o l o s tr u m a n d m i l k
i n th e tr e a tm e n t o f d i s e a s e , Ad v N u tr R e s 2 0 0 1 ; 1 0: 2 0 1 - 1 2 .
7 3 .Sp a g n o l i A, C h i a r e l l i F , Vo r we r k P, Bo s c h e r i n i B, R o s e n fe l d R G;
Ev a l u a ti o n o f th e c o m p o n e n ts o f i n s u l i n - l i k e g r o w th fa c to r ( IGF ) a n d IGF
b i n d i n g p r o te i n ( IGF BP) s y s te m i n a d o l e s c e n ts w i th t y p e 1 d i a b e te s a n d
p e r s i s te n t m i c r o a l b u m i n u r i a : r e l a ti o n s h i p w i th i n c re a s e d e x c r e ti o n o f IGF BP-
3 1 8 k D N - te r m i n a l fr a g m e n t, C l i n En d o c r i n o l 1 9 9 9 ; 5 1( 5 ) : 5 8 7 - 9 6 .
7 4 .T h o m a s F ; In c r e a s e d we i g h t g a i n , n i tr o g e n r e te n ti o n a n d mu s c l e p r o te i n
s y n th e s i s fo l l o w i n g tr e a tm e n t o f d i a b e ti c r a ts wi th IGF - 1 , Bi o c h e m J 1 9 9 1 ;
2 7 6( 3 ) : 5 4 7 - 5 4 .
7 5 .Sk o ti n e r V; An a b o l i c a n d ti s s u e r e p a i r fu n c ti o n s o f r e c o m b i n a n t i n s u l i n -
l i k e g r o wth fa c to r s , Ac ta Pe d i a t Sc a n d 1 9 9 0 ; 3 7 6: S6 3 - 6 .
7 6 .Ste i j n s J M, v a n H o o i j d o n k AC ; Oc c u r r e n c e , s tr u c tu r e , b i o c h e m i c a l
p r o p e r ti e s a n d te c h n o l o g i c a l c h a r a c te r i s ti c s o f l a c to fe r r i n , Br i t J N u tr 2 0 0 0 ;
8 4 ( Su p p l 1 ) :S1 1 - 7 . 7 7 .Mo d d o v e a n u Z ; An ti b a c te r i a l p r o p e r ti e s o f m i l k : Ig A, p e r o x i d a s e -
l a c to fe r r i n i n te r a c ti o n s , An n N Y Ac a d Sc i 1 9 8 3 ; 4 0 9:8 4 8 - 5 0 .
7 8 .N o r d J , Ma P, D i J o h n D , T z i p o r i S, T a c k e t C O; T re a tm e n t wi th b o v i n e
h y p e r i mm u n e c o l o s tr u m o f c r yp to s p o r i d i a l d i a r r h e a in AID S p a ti e n ts , AID S
1 9 9 0 ; 4( 6 ) : 5 8 1 - 4 .
7 9 .R u m p J A, Ar n d t K, Ar n o l d A, Be n e d i c k C , D i e h te l mu l l e r H , F r a n k e M,
H e i m EB, J a g e r H , Ka m pm a n n B, Ko l b P; T r e a tm e n t o f d i a r r h e a i n h u m a n
i mm u n o d e fi c i e n c y v i r u s - i n fe c te d p a ti e n ts w i th i mm u no g l o b u l i n s fr om b o v i n e
c o l o s tr u m , C l i n In v e s ti g 1 9 9 2 ; 7 0( 7 ) : 5 8 8 - 9 4 .
8 0 .An to n i o J , e t a l ; T h e e ffe c ts o f b o v i n e c o l o s tr um s u p p l e m e n ta ti o n o n b o d y
c om p o s i ti o n a n d e x e r c i s e p e r fo r m a n c e i n a c ti v e m e n a n d w o me n , N u tr i ti o n
2 0 0 1 ; 1 7 :2 4 3 - 7 .
8 1 .Me r o A, e t a l ; Effe c ts o f b o v i n e c o l o s tr u m s u p p le m e n ta ti o n o n s e r u m IGF-
1 , Ig G, h o r m o n e a n d s a l i v a Ig A d u r i n g tr a i n i n g , J Ap p l P y s i o l 1 9 9 7 , 8 3 :1 1 4 4 -
5 1 .
8 2 .Bu c k l e y J D , e t a l ; Bo v i n e c o l o s tr u m s u p p l e m e n ta ti o n d u r i n g e n d u r a n c e
r u n n i n g tr a i n i n g i m p r o v e s r e c o v e r y , b u t n o t p e r fo r ma n c e , J Sc i Sp o r t Me d
2 0 0 2 ; 5 ( 2 ) :6 5 - 7 9 .
8 3 .Bu c k l e y J D , e t a l ; Or a l s u p p l e m e n ta ti o n wi th b o vi n e c o l o s tr u m im p r o v e s
r o w i n g p e r fo r m a n c e i n e l i te fem a l e r o we r s . Pr e s e n ted a t 5
t h
IOC W o r l d
C o n g r e s s o n Sp o r t Sc i e n c e s , Sy d n e y 1 9 9 9 ( Ab s tr a c t:
w w w .a u s p o r t.g o v .a u /fu l l te x t/1 9 9 9 /i o c wc /a b s 2 4 6 c .h tm) .
8 4 .H o fm a n Z , e t a l ; T h e e ffe c t o f b o v i n e c o l o s tr u m s u p p l e m e n ta ti o n o f
e x e r c i s e p e r fo r m a n c e i n e l i te fi e l d h o c k e y p l a y e r s , J Sp o r t N u tr Ex e r c Me ta b
2 0 0 2 ; 1 2 ( 4 ) :4 6 1 - 9 .
8 5 .Kr e i d e r R B, e t a l ; Effe c ts of b o v i n e c o l o s tr um su p p l e m e n ta ti o n i n tr a i n i n g
a d a p ta ti o n s I: Bo d y c om p o s i ti o n , Me d Sc i Sp o r ts Ex er c 2 0 0 1 ; 3 3 ( Su p p l
5 ) :Ab s tr a c t L B3 1 6 .
8 6 .Ke r k s i c k C , e t a l ; Effe c ts of b o v i n e c o l o s tr u m su p p l e m e n ta ti o n i n tr a i n i n g
a d a p ta ti o n s II: Pe r fo r m a n c e , Me d Sc i Sp o r ts Ex e r c 20 0 1 ; 3 3 ( Su p p l
5 ) :Ab s tr a c t L B3 1 7
8 7 .C h a n J M, e t a l ; Pl a s m a i n s u l i n - l i k e g r o wth fa c tor - 1 a n d p r o s ta te c a n c e r
r i s k : a p r o s p e c ti v e s tu d y , Sc i e n c e 1 9 9 8 ; 2 7 9 ( 5 3 5 0 ) :5 6 3 - 6 .
8 8 .W o lk A, e t a l ; In s u l i n - l i k e g r o wth fa c to r - 1 a n d p r o s ta te c a n c e r r i s k : a
p o p u l a ti o n - b a s e d , c a s e - c o n tr o l l e d s tu d y , J N a t c a n ce r In s t 1 9 9 8 ;
9 0 ( 1 2 ) :9 1 1 - 5 .
8 9 .Bo h l k e K, e t a l ; In s u l i n - l i k e g r o wth fa c to r - 1 i n r e l a ti o n to p r e m e n o p a u s a l
d u c ta l c a r c i n o m a i n s i tu o f th e b r e a s t, Ep i d e m i o l o g y 1 9 9 8 ; 9 ( 5 ) :5 7 0 - 3 .
9 0 .Sa c h d e v D , Ye e D ; T h e IGF s ys te m a n d b r e a s t c a n ce r , En d o c r i n e R e l a te d
C a n c e r 2 0 0 1 ; 8 :1 9 7 - 2 0 9 . 9 1 .Ma J , e t a l ; Pr o s p e c ti v e s tu d y o f c o l o r e c ta l c a nc e r r i s k i n m e n a n d p l a s m a
l e v e l s o f i n s u l i n - l i k e g r o wth fa c to r ( IGF ) - 1 a n d IGF - b i n d i n g p r o te i n - 3 , J N a tl
C a n c e r In s t 1 9 9 9 , 9 1 ( 7 ) :6 2 0 - 5 .
9 2 .H o w H K, e t a l ; In s u l i n - l i k e g r o wth fa c to r b i n d i ng p r o te i n s ( IGF BPs ) a n d
IGF BP- r e l a te d p r o te i n - 1 l e v e l s i n c e r e b r o s p i n a l fl ui d o f c h i l d r e n w i th a c u te
l ym p h o b l a s ti c l e u k e mi a , J C l i n Me ta b 1 9 9 9 ; 8 4 ( 4 ) :1 28 3 - 7 .
9 3 .Sp r e n g e r C C , e t a l ; In s u l i n - l i k e g r o wth fa c to r bi n d i n g p r o te i n - r e l a te d
p r o te i n - 1 ( IGF BP- r P1 ) i s a p o te n t tu m o r s u p p r e s s o r p r o te i n fo r p r o s ta te
c a n c e r , C a n c e r R e s 1 9 9 9 ; 5 9 ( 1 0 ) :2 3 7 0 - 5 .
9 4 .Ya n g D H , e t a l ; Id e n ti fi c a ti o n o f g l yc o s y l a te d 38 - k D a c o n n e c ti v e ti s s u e
g r o wth fa c to r ( IGF BP r e l a te d p r o te i n 2 ) a n d p r o te o l y ti c fr a g m en ts i n h u m a n
b i o l o g i c a l fl u i d s , a n d u p - r e g u l a ti o n o f IGF BP- r P2 ex p r e s s i o n b y T GF- b e ta i n
H s 5 7 8 T h u m a n b r e a s t c a n c e r c e l l s , J C l i n En d o c r i n o l Me ta b 1 9 9 8 ;
8 3 ( 7 ) ;2 5 9 3 - 6 .
9 5 .Ya m a n a k a Y, e t a l ; C h a r a c te r i z a ti o n o f i n s u l i n - l i k e g r o wth fa c to r b i n d i n g
p r o te i n - 3 ( IGF BP- 3 ) b i n d i n g to h u m a n b r e a s t c a n c e r c e l l s : k i n e ti c s o f IGF BP-
3 b i n d i n g a n d i d e n ti fi c a ti o n o f r e c e p to r b i n d i n g d om a i n s o f th e IGF BP- 3
m o l e c u l e , En d o c r i n o l o g y 1 9 9 9 ; 1 4 0 ( 3 ) :1 3 1 9 - 2 8 .
9 6 .Vo r we c k P, e t a l ; C T F G ( IGF BP- r P2 ) i s s p e c i fi c a l l y e x p r e s s e d i n
m a l i g n a n t l ym p h o b l a s ts o f p a ti e n ts w i th a c u te l ym p ho b l a s ti c l e u k em i a ( AL L ) ,
Br i t J C a n c e r 2 0 0 0 ; 8 3 ( 6 ) :7 5 6 - 6 0 .
9 7 .T r a v e r s SH , e t a l ; In s u l i n - l i k e g r o wth f a c to r b in d i n g p r o te i n - 1 l e v e l s a r e
s tr o n g l y a s s o c i a te d w i th i n s u l i n s e n s i ti v i ty a n d o be s i ty i n e a r l y p u b e r ta l
c h i l d r e n , J C l i n En d o c r i n o l Me ta b 1 9 9 8 ; 8 3 ( 6 ) :1 9 3 5 - 9 .

Dr . Ant ho ny Kleins mit h h o lds a Ph .D. in Nu tr ition , with mo r e th a n 1 8 ye a rs
o f n utr itio na l r e s ea r ch a n d f o r mu la tin g f or c o mp a n y’ s ar o u n d the wo r ld . He
h a s f or mu la te d a n d be e n in vo lve d with r e s e a r ch f o r h u ma n a n d a n ima l h e a lth
a n d p r o d uc t d e ve lo pme n t. His s p e c ialty a n d f o c us ha s b ee n on An ti- Agin g,
I mmu n e En h a n c e me n t/Re gu la tio n a n d We igh t Los s . His wo r k with
r e c o mb in a nt f o r ms of Gr o wth Ho r mo n e s le d h im to s o lidif y r e s e ar c h on
n a tur a l f o r ms o f the I GF - 1 /GH Su p e r Family. Dr . Kl ein s mith h a s wr itte n
s e ve r a l b o o ks , ma d e a p p e ar a nc e s o n TV, Ra d io a n d tour e d the wo r ld as a
p u b lic s p ea ke r pr ima r ily o n Anti- Agin g, I mmu n e En h an c e me nt/Re gu latio n
a n d Weigh t Lo s s . He h a s a ls o e s tab lis h e d a ve r y u niq u e c o n tr a ct
ma n u f a c tur in g f a cility th a t h a s th e a bility to ma intain the inte gr ity o f n atu r a l
s u b s ta n ce s with o ut the u s e of e xc ipie nts o r f iller s.

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